Medieval & English Civil War Experience
Copyright © Des & Judith Thomas (Historical Services To Schools) 2016 All Rights Reserved
With Ned (Young Ned) Carlewe & Judith Carlewe
Colonell Granville Thomas with Judith Thomas
14th - 15th Century
King Henry VI (Part 2)
Back Into The Past
King Henry VI
The Two Claimants (Henry VI):
Margaret and the irreconcilable Lancastrian nobles gathered their forces in the north of England, and when the Duke of York moved north to suppress them, he and his second son Edmund were killed at the Battle of Wakefield in December 1460. The Lancastrian army advanced south and recaptured Henry at the second Battle of St. Albans, but failed to occupy London, and subsequently retreated to the north.
King Edward IV:
York's eldest son, Edward, Earl of March, was proclaimed King Edward IV. He gathered the Yorkist armies and won a crushing victory at the Battle of Towton in March 29 1461. Henry was captured once again, Edward fell out with his chief supporter and advisor, the Earl of Warwick (Known as the "Kingmaker") , tried first to supplant Edward with his younger brother George, Duke of Clarence, and then to restore Henry VI the throne.
This resulted in two years of rapid changes of furtune, before Edward IV once again won complete victories at Barnet in April 1471, where Warwick was killed, and Tewkesbury in May 1471. Henry was murdered in the Tower of London serveral days later, ending the direct Lancastrian line to the succession of the throne.
More Peace: Edwards consolidated his reign and, generally, peace was kept for nearly ten years. Henry VI was captured and placed in the Tower of London. The alliance between Edward IV and Warwick deteriorated, leading to open hostilites between the two. Edward was captured by Warwick in 1469 and many of his newly appointed noble councillors (especially those related to Edward's wife) were executed by Warwick's command. Edward was eventually liberated by his brother and took his revenge on Warwick, forcing him to flee and join the cause of his former enemy, Queen Margaret.
Peace continued untill Edwards IV's death in 1483. His son, Edward V was only 12 years old and placed under the protectorate of Edward IV's brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Richard convinced Parliament that Edward IV's marrage was invalid and that his heirs were illegitimate. Gloucester was then named King Richard I I I.
At this point Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, was the focus of Lancastrian hopes. He had his own claim the the throne through his mother. Richard's and Henry's forces met at the Battle of Bosworth on August 1485. Richard was killed in the battle and Henry was proclaimed King Henry V I I. Henry had to face challenges to his ascendancy, such as at the Battle of Stoke in 1487, but the Tudor dynasty came to be firmly set atop the English throne for years to come.